[1]嵇少丞.2017.关于基岩山坡上的暴雨流冲刷坑被误认为驮兽蹄窝的讨论.大地构造与成矿学,41(6):1039-1052.doi:10.16539/j.ddgzyckx.2017.06.004
 JI Shaocheng.2017.Rainstorm-induced Erosion as a Mechanism for the Formation of Hillside Potholes.Geotectonica et Metallogenia,41(6):1039-1052.doi:10.16539/j.ddgzyckx.2017.06.004
点击复制

关于基岩山坡上的暴雨流冲刷坑被误认为驮兽蹄窝的讨论
分享到:

《大地构造与成矿学》[ISSN:ISSN 1001-1552/CN:CN 44-1595/P]

卷:
期数:
2017年41卷06期
页码:
1039-1052
栏目:
构造地质学
出版日期:
2018-01-01

文章信息/Info

Title:
Rainstorm-induced Erosion as a Mechanism for the Formation of Hillside Potholes
文章编号:
1001-1552(2017)06-1039-014
作者:
嵇少丞
加拿大蒙特利尔综合工学院 民用、地质与采矿工程系, 蒙特利尔 H3C 3A7, 加拿大
Author(s):
JI Shaocheng
Département des Génies Civil, Géologique et des Mines, ?cole Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3A7, Canada
关键词:
山坡壶穴 暴雨流冲刷 北京西山 蹄窝
Keywords:
hillside pothole rainstorm Western Hills in Beijing hoof hole
分类号:
P542; P512
DOI:
10.16539/j.ddgzyckx.2017.06.004
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
山脉的隆升与夷平无不与地表岩石的风化剥蚀密切相关, 暴雨冲刷作用对山区岩石的风化剥蚀至关重要。雨水顺着倾斜的山坡迅速汇聚, 形成湍急洪流, 冲携山坡上的砂砾与小石块, 对石坡上原先小幅度的洼凹之地或薄弱部位进行机械性磨蚀与化学溶蚀, 上述地质过程不断重复, 逐渐形成山坡壶穴。美国加州华斯克巨岩公园、澳大利亚中部大红山以及中国北京西山的山坡壶穴都是暴雨流壶穴的典型例子。可惜过去一段时间里北京西山地区的山坡壶穴被误认为是“京西古道上骡马驴踩出来的蹄坑”, 这样解释的前提条件是在数百年间、数以万计的骡马驴不断地踩进同一处、且不断加深的石头蹄坑。动物行为学研究表明, 马之类的动物在行走过程中会本能地躲避踩进较深(≥5~10 cm)的洼坑或水坑, 以防扭伤蹄腕或折断腿骨。世界上著名的铺石古道上只见车辙痕不见马蹄坑, 亦是有力的证明。
Abstract:
Rainstorm after rainstorm over hundreds or thousands of years has sent water plummeting down the resistant rock, wearing it away to form grooves, chains of potholes and plunge pools. The potholes, which vary in shape and size, are drilled into the bed rock on the slopes of stony mountain where rapidly flowing water has enough potential energy to carry pebbles, granules and sands to erode deflation hollows through abrasion, corrosion and dissolution. Typical examples of hillside potholes formed and enlarged during the occasional heavy rains are demonstrated in the Vasquez Rocks Natural Area Park (the northern Los Angeles County, California, USA) and the Ayers Rock (Uluru, Australia). Unfortunately, rainstorm-originated potholes in the region of the Western Hills (Beijing, China) were erroneously interpreted by Dechen Su (2016) as hoof holes formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties (1368?1912 AD). His interpretation inevitably involves a speculation that thousands of horses had stepped into the same but progressively deepening holes during several hundred years. However, the fact that, by nature, horses instinctively avoid stepping in deep (≥5?10 cm) or muddy-water-filled potholes as to prevent any possible injury to their ankles, makes Denchen Su’s hypothesis impossible. Furthermore, the absence of hoof holes on the historical traffic routes with cart-ruts (e.g., China, France, Italy, Malta, and Switzerland) consistently indicates that his hypothesis, no matter how highly original it may be, is baseless. The finding presented here has enormous implications for improving the understanding of the rates of bedrock erosion and pothole formation in mountainous regions.

参考文献/References:

北京市门头沟区文化文物局. 2001. 门头沟文物志. 北京: 北京燕山出版社.
陈保亚, 张刚, 杨璞. 2016. 京西古道: 草原茶马古道的重要连接网络——词与物的证据. 科学中国人, 31(11): 1–4.
福岛安正. 1886. 自邇集平仄编四声联珠. 东京不二出版株式会社(陆军文库本覆刻, 1985), 卷4.
高寿仙. 2014. 北京人口史. 北京: 中国人民大学出版社.
韩光辉. 1996. 北京历史人口地理. 北京: 北京大学出版社.
韩同林, 劳雄, 郭克毅. 2000. 关于南国冰臼群成因的商榷. 热带地理, 20(1): 72–80.
韩同林, 劳雄, 郭克毅. 2001. 关于南国冰臼群成因的商榷之二. 热带地理, 21(2): 189–194.
华长卿. 1995. 梅庄诗钞 // 续修四库全书. 集部. 别集类. 册1533. 上海: 上海古籍出版社 (据辽宁省图书馆藏清同治九年(1870)华鼎元都门刻本影印): 199.
华学澜. 2013. 庚子日记 // 庚子纪事, 近代史资料专刊. 第3 种, 十二月十六日: 140. 知识产权出版社.
昆冈等修. 1963. 钦定大清会典事例(光绪). 台北: 台北启文出版社, 卷 951.
廖飞鹏, 范庆澜修, 高书官等. 1968. 房山县志(民国), 卷2, 交通、路政. 台湾成文出版社据1928版本影印.
吕洪波, 章雨旭. 2008. 壶穴、锅穴、冰臼、岩臼等术语的辨析与使用建议. 地质通报, 27(6): 917–922.
吕洪波, 章雨旭, 王俊. 2010. 北京延庆白龙潭被揭示为一巨型山谷壶穴. 地质论评, 56(6): 885–887.
邱仲麟. 2016. 清代北京用煤及其运销系统. (台湾)中央研究院近代史研究所集刊: 1–40.
史梦兰. 尔尔书屋诗草 // 续修四库全书. 集部. 别集类. 上海: 上海古籍出版社据辽宁省图书馆藏清光绪元年(1875)止园刻本影印, 1995), 册1541, 卷6: 448.
苏德辰. 2016. 是蹄窝, 不是壶穴——北京西山古道蹄窝成因考. 地质论评, 62(3): 693–708.
孙宝瑄. 1983. 忘山庐日记. 上海: 上海古籍出版社.
温克刚, 谢璞. 2005. 中国气象灾害大典: 北京卷. 北京: 气象出版社.
熊梦祥. 1983. 析津志 // 析津志辑佚. 北京图书馆善本组. 北京: 北京古籍出版社.
周广业. 1997. 过夏杂录 // 续修四库全书. 子部. 杂家类. 上海: 上海古籍出版社据北京图书馆藏清种松书塾抄本影印. 册1154, 卷6.
Cabell-Self M. 1974. The Nature of the Horse. Arco: 217.
Hendrix E D and Ingersoll R V. 1987. Tectonics and alluvial sedimentation of the upper Oligocene/lower Miocene Vasquez Formation, Soledad basin, southern California. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 98(6): 647– 663.
Hughes K J. 1999. Persistent features from a palaeo- Landscape: The ancient tracks of the Maltese Islands. The Geographical Journal, 165(1): 62–78.
Koch C and Brilakis I. 2011. Pothole detection in asphalt pavement images. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 25: 507–515.
Mottershead D, Pearson A and Schaefer M. 2008. The cart ruts of Malta: An applied geomorphology approach. Antiquity, 82(318): 1065–1079.
Pelletier J D, Sweeney K E, Roering J J and Finnegan N J. 2014. Controls on the geometry of potholes in bedrock channels. Geophysical Research Letters, 42: 797–803.
Sagona C. 2004. Land use in prehistoric Malta: A re-examination of the Maltese ‘cart ruts’. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 23(1): 45–60.
Saliba P C and Conti J M. 2017. The Significance of Cart-Ruts in Ancient Landscapes. Midsea Books Limited.
Schneider G. 2001. Investigating historical traffic routes and cart-ruts in Switzerland, Elsass (France) and Aosta Valley (Italy). The Oracle, 2: 12–22.
Skipper L. 2007. Understanding Horse Behavior. Skyhorse Pub, Incorporated: 144.
Tarbuck E J, Lutgens F K, Tsujita C J and Hicock S R. 2009. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Pearson Prentice Hall: 601.
Tiong P L Y, Mustaffar M and Hainin M R. 2012. Road surface assessment of pothole severity by close range digital photogrammetry method. World Applied Sciences Journal, 19(6): 867–873.
Wang W, Liang M Z and Huang S. 2009. Formation and development of stream potholes in a gorge in Guangdong. Journal Geographical Sciences, 19: 118–128.
Wendt M. 2011. How horses feel and think. Cadmos Publishing Limited: 112.
Weston G E. 2010. The Maltese cart-ruts. Progress Press: 224.
Woodruff G A, McCoy W J and Sheldon W B. 1970. Soil Survey of the Antelope Valley Area, California. The US Department of Agriculture: 187.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期: 2017-06-25; 改回日期: 2017-07-15 项目资助: 加拿大自然科学与工程基金会(NSERC)提供研究资助。 作者简介: 嵇少丞(1960–), 男, 博士, 教授, 主要从事地球材料流变学、岩石物理和深部构造地质方面的研究。Email: sji@polymtl.ca
更新日期/Last Update: 2017-12-05